FINAL EXAM IN DRUGS – ALCOHOL

what is the basic process in producing alcohol, involves yeast acting on sugar and water to make ethyl alcohol
fermentation
fermentation is the basic process in producing alcohol involvues ___________ acting on ________and_____________to make _______________
yeast
sugar and water
ethyl alcohol
heating and evaporation of mixtures containing alcohol to increase alcohol content
distillation
distillation is the heating and evaporation of mixtures containing alcohol in order to _____________
increase alcohol content
congeners are other ________, ______, and _________ that is created during distillation
alcohols, oils, and organic matter
other alcohols, oils, and organic matter that is created during distillation refers to
congeners
“proof” is equal to ______________
twice the percent of alcohol content
80 proof would = ___% of alcohol
40%
who documented effects of heavy drinking; denounced distilled spirits, arguing that they led to moral breakdown
benjamin rush
benjamin rush documented the effects of ____________; he critisized __________, and arguing that they led to __________
heavy drinking
distilled spirits
moral breakdown
what did the temperance movement argue against..what did it approve and for what?
argued against use of distilled spirits;
it approved other forms of alcohol (beer, wine)
only for moderate consumption
what did the 18th amendment do?
prohibited manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating alcohol
the federal goverment lost an important source of revenue when the 18th amendment became law by
losing tax on alcohol
the minimum age for legally purchasing or using alcohol was set to ___ by the year ______.
21
1988.
do women or men drink more
men drink more than women
absorbtion of alcohol is mostly absorbed in the ________
small intestines
once alcohol is absorbed what happens to it?
it is absorbed unchanged
water _______ rate of absorption, but carbonated water will ________ rate of absorption
decreases
increases
what is BAC affected by
weight and gender
the body metabolizes a constant amount ____________ per hour regardless of the __________
.25 to .30 ounces
BAC
at low doses alcohol _______________
at high doses it ___________

enhances GABA activity
blocks glutamate
85% of people who get DUI’s are _______
males
what does recent research show about drinking and their sexual behavior
less attention to the task, and greater risk-taking behavior
what is most common when people drive under the influence?
single car accidents on weekends
periods when a person appears normal, but cannot recall events later refers to
blackouts
when drinking alcohol, what types of crime and violence take place
homicide, assault and other crimes of violence, and suicide
homicide, assault and other crimes of violence, and suicide all tie into ________
alcohol
Wernicke-Korsakoff’s Syndrome is a combination of what two classic brain diseases?
wernickes disease, and korsakoffs psychosis
confusion, delirium, apprehension, ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary movements), and abnormal eye movements all deal with _____________
wernickes disease
severe memory impairment, and confabulation deal with ___________
korsakoffs psychosis
what is korsakoffs psychosis related to
changes in the brain
what is a liver disorder where fatty acids accumulate in the liver when alcohol is present?
fatty liver
fatty liver refers to a liver disorder where __________ accululates in the liver when ____________-
fatty acids
alcohol is present
growth retardation, mental retardation, abnormal physical development refers to
Fetal alcohol syndrome
how long do withdrawal symptoms from alcohol last
weeks