DNA & RNA

What is a nucleotide?
The part oof DNA that is made up of a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate, and a nitrogen base
Name the two pyriemidines in the DNA molecule
Thymine & Cytosine
Name the two purines in DNA molecule
Adenine & Guanine
What is the pattern of bonding of the nitrogen-containing bases?
C-G
A-T
DNA serves two basic purposes in the cell, what are they?
Replication (copying itself) & Template for transcription
Name the components in the DNA molecule
Phosphate
Sugar (deocyribose)
Nitrogen-containing base
Hydrogen bonds
List the three types of RNA
Messenger RNA
Transfer RNA
Ribosomal RNA
List three ways RNA is different from DNA
Single strand
Uracil instead of thymine
Ribose sugar instead of deocyribose
What are the subunits that make up nucleic acids?
nucleotides
A nucleotide is made up of what three parts?
Phosphate
Sugar
Nitrogen-Containing base
The sugar of RNA is what?
Ribose
The sugar in DNA is what?
Deoxyribose
What is the different base in RNA, compared to DNA?
Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T)
What are the two types of nitrogen bases found in nucleic acids?
Purines
Pyrimidines
A DNA molecule has how many strands?
Two
What is the process by which new molecules of DNA are formed?
Replication
What is transcription?
The process by which the genetic information of DNA is copied into mRNA
In what part of the cell does the synthesis of mRNA occur?
In the nucleus
What determines the sequence of bases in mRNA?
It is determined by the base sequence of the segments of DNA on which it is formed
What are the organic molecules thymine and cytosine also known as?
pyrimidines
What are the organic molecules adenine and guanine also known as?
purines
Name a double helix molecule
DNA
What are codes for specific amino acid called?
Codons
What carries the DNA code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?
Messenger RNA
What is the process by which DNA information is transferred to RNA?
Transcription
What is the process by which DNA builds an exact copy of itself?
Replication
What delivers amino acids to mRNA?
Transfer RNA
What is the process of making different kinds of proteins?
Protein synthesis or Translation
In RNA, the base thymine is replaced by what?
Uracil, U
Which bonds are broken during replication?
The weak hydrogen bonds
What is formed by transcription?
RNA
What carries genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosomes?
Messenger RNA
Name the four bases of RNA
Adenine
Uracil
Cytosine
Guanine
What are codons?
A group of three letter code words – also called triplets
Protein synthesis takes place in two phases. What are they?
Transcription
Translation