APUSH Unit 4

Fisk-Gould Scandal
A scandal in 1869 with an attempt to corner the gold market.
Boss Tweed
This rich american politician stole up to 200 million from taxpayers money with a ring of bribes.
Credit Mobilier
This railroad construction company payed themselves as much as $50,000 per mile of RR which actually cost 30,000.
Whiskey Ring
The network of bribes meant to evade the Whiskey Tax.
William Belknap
He pocketed around $24,000 for selling junk to indians.
Thomas Nast
Cartoonist for the NYTimes who publicized scandalous barons like Boss Tweed.
Harrison
The 23rd President of the United States who ended the surplus problem.
Mugwumps
Republicans who joined Democratic party when Blaine was nominated.
McKinley Tariff
The 48.4% Protective Tariff; Extremely detrimental to American Farmers.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(1890) This Law, Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver, a National Income Tax, and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Tom Watson
Elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia’s farmers. He was a Populist who supported interracial unity, but turned more radical.
Jim Crowe Laws
Laws instituted in the south after reconstruction enforcing the segregation of blacks and whites
Depression of 1893
Caused by overbuilding and overspeculation: Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
J.P. Morgan
He loaned the gov’t 65 Million in gold, when treasury surplus hit 41 Million.
Jacob Coxey
Populist who led by Army of supporters in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed. Arrested for walking on grass.
Pullman Strike
1894 Railway workers strike for higher wages after (1/3rd salary decrease) in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (which the leader Debs Defied) due to the issues the strike caused with mail delivery.
Eugene Debs
Prominent socialist leader who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike. Defied a Court injunction and sentenced to prison.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Reduced Rates of McKinley Tariff to 41.3% and issued a 2% income tax which lasted less then a year.
Marcus Alonzo Hanna
Used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley’s presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.
William McKinley
This Republican candidate defeated William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential election. As a supporter of big business, he pushed for high protective tariffs.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925) “Cross of Gold” Speech
Dingley Tariff Bill
Tariff once again raised 41.3% -> 46.5%, over 850 amendments tacked on; passed thru by Reed to heal deficits
Gold Standard Act
Reestablished gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism; signed by McKinley
Bison
The killing of much of this population, along with the spreading of disease limited down the indian population.
Reservation System
Started in 1851 + 1853 when gov’t negotiated treaties for tribal bounderies, often corruptly.
Sand Creek Massacre
Chivington’s Militia massacred 400 indians who thought they had a treaty. Lead to Sioux war party ambush.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River.
George Armstrong Custer
Reported gold in Great Sioux Region sprouting population boom causing the battle of Little Big Horn, where he died.
Battle of Little Big Horn
Sioux leader sitting bull led the fight against general George Custer and the 7th cavalry. The Sioux wanted miners out of the black hills, and had appealed to government officials in Washington to stop the miners. Washington doesn’t listen. When Custer came to Little Big Horn, Sitting Bull and his warriors were ready and killed them all!
Nez Perce
This tribe was decieved into thinking they’d be returned to ancestral lands in Idaho, but instead sent to Kansas.
Apache
This tribe was oneof the last to subdue. Lead by Geronimo, they were chased into Mexico and forced to Surrender.
Buffalo Bill
He killed 400+ bison while working on the KS Pacific.
Helen Hunt
Wrote A Century of Dishonor; this book chronicles the sorry record of government ruthlessness and chicanery in dealings with Indians; she also wrote Ramona a love story of injustice to the California Indians
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
Dissolved legal entities of all tribes but if Indians were “good” (farmers), they could get full U.S. citizenship in 25 yrs + full title to holdings
Battle of Wounded Knee
After Sun Dance was outlawed, the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Native Americans thus ending the Indian wars and banning the newer ghost dance.
Carlisle Indian School
Failed attempt to forcibly integrate children of Native American’s into US culture by way of a boarding school
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years and improvise. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Dry Farming
Methods used by farmers to make the Great Plains viable; involves using steal plow to dig deeply where moisture resides.
Glidden
Invented barbed wire, for areas where wood wasn’t around.
Safety Valve Theory
As population increases, the people could move west from the east into new developing cities
Pikes Peak
The discovery of gold in 1858 which sent minors on a frantic rush to the Dakota territory, Montana, and Colorado.
Combine
Harvester that heads and threshes and cleans grain while moving across the field.
One Crop Farming
A dangerous and competitive farming strategy depending on the world market.
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads to break manufacturers alliance.
Farmer’s Alliance
A Farmers’ organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Louis Sullivan
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase ‘form follows function’ (1856-1924)
Telephone
Production of this grew from 50,000 in 1880 to 1 million in 1900.
Southeast Europe
New Immigrants from here in the 1880’s to 1900’s attributed from 16-66% of the immigrant influx.
Political Bosses
Political Giants who often bribed citizens and immigrants of jobs for votes in elections.
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Hull House
Goal to get rich and poor closer together offering food and shelter, with donations from wealthy.
Florence Kelly
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committe
Nativism
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
First Restrictive Law
sent back immigrant criminals and convicts.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country.
Booker T. Washington
headed black normal and industrial school in Tuskegee, fought for black education.
Du Bois
First Black to get P.H.D
Morill Act of 1862
Gave states money for purpose of promoting education.
Hatch Act
provided federal funds for establishing agricultural experiment stations
Carnegie
donated 60 million to library of congress
Dime Novels
Horatio Alger sold over 100 million of these literary cravings.
Kate Chopin
Wrote about women’s ambitions in “The Awakening” along with suicide.
Victoria Woodhull
radical, publicly proclaimed free love, fought for women’s rights, women’s suffrage (vote), first female to run for presidency
Anthony Comstock
Persuaded Congress in 1873 to pass the “Comstock Law” which prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd material and photographs.
National Women’s Suffrage Association
led by Carrie Chapman and Harriet Stanton Blatch; sought the support of working-class women and tied the economic exploitation of women to their lack of political power.
155 Million Acres
The ammount of land Congress ended up rewarding to railroad companies.
Land Grant
Arround 155 million acres was given to railroad companies so inturn they would populate the great west in
Stock watering
Railroad stock promoters inflated their claims and sold stocks for more than they were worth
trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Interstate commerce act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Bessemer Process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Lockout
the refusal by an employer to allow employees to work unless they agree to his or terms.
yellow dog contracts
contracts employees signed, giving them low wages and conditions like not joining unions
Scabs
Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
black list
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
Wabash Case
1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Rockefeller
oil company, horizontal integration
Carnegie
oil company, vertical integration
interlocking directorates
placed own men on boards of directors of rival competitors (used by Morgan)